Fair Work Convention

Fair Work Convention Scotland, Effective Voice

Effective Voice

Effective voice is much more than just having a channel of communication available within organisations - though this is important.

Effective voice requires a safe environment where dialogue and challenge are dealt with constructively and where employee views are sought out, listened to and can make a difference.

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Fair Work Convention Scotland, Opportunity

Opportunity

It is a reasonable aspiration to want work that is fair - and for fair work to be available to everyone. Fair opportunity allows people to access and progress in work and employment and is a crucial dimension of fair work

Meeting legal obligations in terms of ensuring equal access to work and equal opportunities in work sets a minimum floor for fair work.

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Fair Work Convention Scotland, Security

Security

Security of employment, work and income are important foundations of a successful life.

Predictability of working time is often a component of secure working arrangements.

While no one has complete security and stability of employment, income and work, security is an important aspect of fair work.

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Fair Work Convention Scotland, Fulfilment

Fulfilment

For many people, work is a fulfilling part of their life. For others, work tasks, working conditions and the work environment make work unfulfilling.

Access to work that is as fulfilling as it is capable of being is an important aspiration of the Fair Work agenda. People have different views of what type of work is fulfilling for them.

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Fair Work Convention Scotland, Respect

Respect

Fair work is work in which people are respected and treated respectfully, whatever their role and status.

Respect involves recognising others as dignified human beings and recognising their standing and personal worth.

At its most basic, respect involves ensuring the health, safety and well-being of others.

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Fair Work Framework 2016

Annex D: Endnotes

  1. Working Together Review, 'Working Together Review: Progressive Workplace Policies in Scotland' (Edinburgh: The Scottish Government, 2014), www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/08/4647
  2. Findlay, C. Lindsay, J. McQuarrie & R. Pascoe-Deslauriers, 'A Conceptual Understanding of Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work', Discussion Paper, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, forthcoming), www.innovatingworks.org.uk
  3. Ibid.
  4. P. Findlay, D. Chalmers, C. Lindsay, J. MacBryde, R. Matthews, & R. Pascoe-Deslauriers, 'Innovating Works...Improving Work and Workplaces: Workplace Innovation in Small to Medium Sized Enterprises in Scotland'(Glasgow: University of Strathclyde, 2015), http://innovatingworks.org.uk/AboutUs/PublicationsandReports/tabid/4949/Default.aspx
  5. Eurofound, 'National Working Conditions Survey in Europe: A Compilation' (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2014); Eurofound, 'Third European Company Survey - Overview Report: Workplace Practices - Patterns, Performance and Wellbeing' (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015).
  6. Economy, Energy and Tourism Committee, 'Taking the High Road - Work, Wages and Wellbeing in the Scottish Labour Market', SP Paper (Edinburgh: Scottish Parliament, 2016).
  7. Stuart, H. Pautz, S. Crimin, & S. Wright, 'What Makes for Decent Work? Initial Findings from a Study with Low Paid Workers in Scotland' (UWS-Oxfam partnership project with support from the Institute for Employment Research, 2016).
  8. Hughes, C., Kenway, P., Kelly, P. & Barry-Born, T. (2016) 'Enlightened self-interest? The role of private sector employers in reducing poverty', (New Policy Institute and the Poverty Alliance).
  9. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Mapping Stakeholder Views of Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work in Scotland', Project Report, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.
  10. L. Elliot, 'Beware of the great 2016 financial crisis, warns leading City pessimist', The Guardian, 12 January 2016 http://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jan/12/beware-great-2016-financial-crisis-warns-city-pessimist
  11. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Mapping Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work in Scotland: An Evidence Review', Project Report, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.
  12. OECD, 'Focus on Inequality and Growth' (OECD, December 2014), www.oecd.org/els/soc/Focus-Inequality-and-Growth-2014.pdf.
  13. Eurofound, Third Company Survey - Overview Report: Workplace Practices - Patterns, Performance and Wellbeing (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2015).
  14. Scottish Government, 'Programme for Government 2015-16' (Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2015).
  15. M. Diffley, C. McLean, I. Ozgul, C. Hockaday, D. Hirsh, & L. Valadez, 'Wider Payment of the Living Wage in Scotland - Issues for Consideration', Scottish Government Social Research (Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2015).
  16. Scottish Government and STUC, 'Memorandum of Understanding between the Scottish Government and the STUC' (Scottish Government, 2015), http://www.stuc.org.uk/files/Document%20download/Memorandum%20of%20Understanding/375794_SGand_STUC_Memo_WEB.pdf.
  17. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Effective Voice as a Dimension of Fair Work', Discussion paper, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.
  18. P. Boxall, R. Freeman, and P. Haynes, eds., 'What Workers Say: Employee Voice in the Anglo-American Workplace' (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007).
  19. B. Kersley, C. Alpin, J. Forth, A. Bryson, H. Bewley, G. Dix, S. Oxenbridge, 'Inside the Workplace: Findings from the 2004 Workplace Employment Relations Survey' (2006).
  20. D. Asterious and V. Monastiriotis, 'Trade Unionism and Growth: A Panel Data Study' (Reading, UK: Henley Business School, University of Reading, 2001), www.reading.ac.uk/web/FILES/management/429.pdf.
  21. B. van Wanrooy, H. Bewley, A. Bryson, J. Forth, S. Freeth, L. Stokes, & S. Wood, 'The 2011 Workplace Employment Relations Study: First Findings' (Department for Business Innovation & Skills, 2013).
  22. D. Gallie, A. Felstead, F. Green, & H. Inanc, 'The Hidden Face of Job Insecurity', Work, Employment & Society, (29 January 2016); F. Green, A. Felstead, D. Gallie & H. Inanc, 'Job-Related Wellbeing in Britain: First Findings from the Skills and Employment Survey 2012', Project Report (London: Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies, Institute of Education, 2013).
  23. B. van Wanrooy, op cit.
  24. Ibid.
  25. D. Robinson and J. Gifford, eds., The Future of Engagement - Thought Piece Collection, Thought Leadership Series 2014-01 (Institute for Employment Studies, CIPD, Engage for Success, 2014).
  26. J. Purcell and K. Geogiadis, 'Why Should Employers Bother with Worker Voice?', in What Workers Say: Employee Voice in the Anglo-American Workplace, ed. by P. Boxall, R. Freeman, and P. Haynes (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007), pp. 181-97.
  27. J. Duffy, G. Gall, and J. Mather, 'Working Together: A Vision for Industrial Democracy in a Common Weal Economy' (Biggar: The Reid Foundation, 2013).
  28. B. van Wanrooy, op cit.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Purcell, J. and Geogiadis, K. (2007) 'Why should employers bother with worker voice?' in R. Freeman, P. Boxall and P. Haynes (eds) What Workers Say: Employee Voice in the Anglo-American Workplace. Ithaca, NY: ILR press pp181-197.
  32. B. van Wanrooy, op cit.
  33. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Fair Opportunity as a Dimension of Fair Work', Discussion paper, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.
  34. Scottish Government, 'Annual Population Survey, Results for Year to 30 September 2015 - Summary Tables' (Scottish Government, 2015), www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/Publications/APSOSTables.
  35. Scottish Government, 'Annual Population Survey, Results for Year to 30 June 2015' (Scottish Government, 16 September 2015), www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/Publications/APSJulJunSum.
  36. Eurostat, 'Employment Statistics' (Eurostat, August 2015), http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Employment_statistics.
  37. Scottish Government, 'Annual Population Survey, Results for Year to 30 September 2015 - Summary Tables'.
  38. Scottish Government, 'Annual Population Survey, Results for Year to 30 September 2015'.
  39. Eurostat, 'Youth Employment by Sex, Age and Educational Attainment Level - Summary Table - Age Class 15 to 24 years' (Eurostat, 24 February 2016).
  40. Youth employment rate for the period of October 2006 to September 2007 from Scottish Government, 'Annual Population Survey, Results for year to 30 September 2015 - Summary Tables: Table 3' (Scottish Government, 16 December 2015).
  41. A. Schmillen and M. Umkehrer, 'The Scars of Youth: Effects of Early-Career Unemployment on Future Unemployment Experience', IAB - Discussion Paper (Institute for Employment Research, 2013). Gregg, P., and E. Tominey. 'The Wage Scar from Youth Unemployment' CMPO Working Paper Series (Bristol: University of Bristol, 2004).
  42. Scottish Government, 'Labour Market Briefing - August' (Scottish Government, 2015), www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/AnalyticalPapers/LM-Brief-August.
  43. Scottish Government, 'Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey, 2014'.
  44. Scottish Government, 'Labour Market Briefing - August'.
  45. Scottish Government, 'Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey, 2014'.
  46. Eurostat, 'Labour Market and Labour Force Survey (LFS) Statistics' (Eurostat, April 2015), http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Labour_market_and_Labour_force_survey_%28LFS%29_statistics.
  47. Scottish Government, 'Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey, 2014'.
  48. ONS, 'Women in the Labour Market' (Office for National Statistics, 25 September 2013), www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_328352.pdf.
  49. Scottish Government, 'Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey, 2014'.
  50. EHRC, 'Is Scotland Fairer? The State of Equality and Human Rights' (Equality and Human Rights Commission, 2016).
  51. Ibid.; Scottish Government, 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2' (Edinburgh: The Scottish Government, 2015).
  52. Scottish Government, 'Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey - Local Authority Tables', Tables (Scottish Government, 2015), www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/Local-Authority-Tables.
  53. EHRC, 'Is Scotland Fairer? The State of Equality and Human Rights'.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Ibid.
  56. Ibid.
  57. L. Ashley, J. Duberley, H. Sommerlad, & D. Scholarios, 'A Qualitative Evaluation of Non-Educational Barriers to the Elite Professions' (Social Mobility & Child Poverty Commission, 2015); Social Mobility & Child Poverty Commission, 'Elitist Scotland?' (Social Mobility & Child Poverty Commission, 3 December 2015); Social Mobility & Child Poverty Commission, 'State of the Nation 2015: Social Mobility and Child Poverty in Great Britain' (London: Social Mobility & Child Poverty Commission, December 2015); Savage, M, (2015) Social Class in the 21st Century.
  58. N. Bacon and K. Hoque, 'The Role and Impact of Trade Union Equality Representatives in Britain' (Cass Business School, City University London, 2013).
  59. P. Findlay, R. Stewart, E. Dutton, & C. Warhurst, 'Evaluation of the Scottish Union Learning Fund (SULF) (2000-2005)' (Edinburgh: Scottish Government, 2006).
  60. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Security as a Dimension of Fair Work', Discussion paper, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.
  61. SPICe, 'Earning in Scotland 2015', Financial Scrutiny Unit Briefing (Edinburgh: Scottish Parliament Information Centre, 2015).
  62. SPICe, 'Earnings in Scotland 2014', Financial Scrutiny Unit Briefing (Edinburgh: Scottish Parliament Information Centre, 2014).
  63. Ibid.
  64. Economy, Energy and Tourism Committee, 'Taking the High Road - Work, Wages and Wellbeing in the Scottish Labour Market'.
  65. Markit Group Ltd., 'Living Wage Research for KPMG: Structural Analysis of Hourly Wages and Current Trends in Household Finances' (London: KMPG, 2014), www.kpmg.com/UK/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Documents/PDF/Latest%20News/living-wage-research-october-2014.pdf.
  66. Scottish Government, 'Poverty and Income Inequality in Scotland: 2012/13', A National Statistics Publication for Scotland (Edinburgh: Scottish Government, July 2014).
  67. ONS, 'Poverty and Employment Transitions in the UK and EU, 2007-2012' (Office for National Statistics, 10 March 2015), www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_395768.pdf.
  68. SPICe, 'Earnings in Scotland 2014'.
  69. Scottish Government, 'Income Inequality Briefing - Sept 2015' (Scottish Government, 17 September 2015), www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Social-Welfare/IncomePoverty/incomeinequalitysept2015.
  70. F. Green et al., 'Job-Related Wellbeing in Britain: First Findings from the Skills and Employment Survey 2012', Project Report (London: Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies, Institute of Education, 2013).
  71. Machin, S. 'Changes in UK Wage Inequality over the Last Forty Years'. In The Labour Market in Winter, ed. by P. Gregg and J. Wadsworth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 155-69.
  72. High Pay Centre, 'Pay Ratio Spreadsheet, August 2014' (High Pay Centre, August 2014), http://highpaycentre.org/files/pay_ratio_spreadsheet_aug14.pdf.
  73. CIPD, 'Employee Outlook: Autumn 2014', Employee Outlook (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2014).
  74. ONS, 'Labour Market Statistics Summary Data Tables' (Office for National Statistics, 16 September 2015), www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/lms/labour-market-statistics/september-2015/table-a01.xls.
  75. ONS, 'Analysis of Employee Contracts That Do Not Guarantee a Minimum Number of Hours' (Office for National Statistics, 25 February 2015), www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_396885.pdf.
  76. Mark Chandler, 'People in Employment Reporting a Zero-Hours Contract, August 2014' (Office for National Statistics, 13 August 2014), www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_373757.pdf.
  77. ONS, 'Analysis of Employee Contracts That Do Not Guarantee a Minimum Number of Hours'; Chandler, 'People in Employment Reporting a Zero-Hours Contract, August 2014'.
  78. Scottish Government, 'Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey, 2014'.
  79. ONS, 'Underemployment and Overemployment in the UK, 2014' (Office for National Statistics, 25 October 2014), www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_387087.pdf.
  80. Scottish Government, 'Local Area Labour Markets in Scotland: Statistics from the Annual Population Survey, 2014'.
  81. ONS, 'Underemployment and Overemployment in the UK, 2014'.
  82. Hughes et al, op cit.
  83. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, Unpublished interview. Innovating Works...Improving Work and Workplaces (2014-15) (University of Strathclyde, March 2015).
  84. Correspondence between the University of Strathclyde and the Fair Work Convention, 2015.
  85. N. Bacon and P. Samuel, 'Partnership in NHS Scotland 1999-2011' (Nottingham University Business School, January 2011).
  86. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Fulfilment as a Dimension of Fair Work', Discussion Paper, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.
  87. UK Commission for Employment and Skills, 'UK Commission's Employer Skills Survey 2013: UK Results', Evidence Report (UK Commission for Employment and Skills, 2014).
  88. Ibid.
  89. 2010 data from the European Working Conditions Survey; D. Gallie and Y. Zhou, 'Work Organisation and Employee Involvement in Europe', A Report Based on the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey (Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2013).
  90. B. van Wanrooy, op cit.
  91. Health and Safety Executive, 'Management Standards' (Health and Safety Executive), accessed 22 February 2016, www.hse.gov.uk/stress/standards/.
  92. S.J. Wood, M. Van Veldhoven, M. Croon, & L. de Menezes, 'Enriched Job Design, High Involvement Management and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Roles of Job Satisfaction and Wellbeing' 65, no. 4 (2012): 419-46.
  93. A. Felstead, D. Gallie, F. Green, & H. Inanc., 'Work Intensification in Britain: First Findings from the Skills and Employment Survey 2012' (London: Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies, Institute of Education, 2013).
  94. Eurostat, 'Average Number of Usual Weekly Hours of Work in Main Job', Eurostat, 2014, http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/gdp-and-beyond/quality-of-life/average-number-of-usual-weekly-hours-of-work-in-main-job.
  95. Engage for Success, 'The Evidence: Wellbeing and Employee Engagement' (Engage for Success, May 2014).
  96. CIPD, 'Employee Views on Working Life: Employee Outlook, Spring 2015', Employee Outlook (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2015).
  97. P. Taylor, 'Performance Management and the New Workplace Tyranny', A Report for the Scottish Trades Union Congress (Glasgow: STUC, 2013).
  98. UK Commission for Employment and Skills, op cit.
  99. UK Commission for Employment and Skills, 'UK Commission's Employer Skills Survey 2013: UK Results', Evidence Report (UK Commission for Employment and Skills, 2014).
  100. Ibid.
  101. Ibid.
  102. M. Stuart, D. Valizade, and I. Bessa, 'Skills and Training: The Union Advantage - Training, Union Recognition and Collective Bargaining', Research Paper (London: Centre for Employment Relations, Innovation and Change; unionlearn with the TUC, May 2015).
  103. P. Findlay, J. Commander, and C. Warhurst, 'The Role of Trade Unions in Effective Skills Utilisation: Three Scottish Case Studies', report for Scottish Union Learning and the Scottish Trades Union Congress (STUC, April 2011).
  104. CIPD, 'Employee Outlook: Autumn 2014'.
  105. Morgeson et al., 2011 & Shantz et al., 2013 cited in Engage for Success, 'The Evidence: Wellbeing and Employee Engagement' (Engage for Success, May 2014).
  106. E. Cottini and C. Lucifora, 'Inequalities at Work: Job Quality, Health and Low Pay in European Workplaces', GINI Discussion Paper, Growing Inequalities' Impact (AIAS, 2013)
  107. B.T. Langeland, 'New Studies on the Long-Term Effects of Bullying' (Eurofound, 2012), www.eurofound.europa.eu/observatories/eurwork/articles/new-studies-on-the-long-term-effects-of-bullying.
  108. Economy, Energy and Tourism Committee, 'Taking the High Road - Work, Wages and Wellbeing in the Scottish Labour Market'.
  109. N. Eisenstadt, 'Independent Advisor on Poverty and Inequality: Shifting the Curve - a Report for the First Minister', Report (Scottish Government, 2016).
  110. Chartered Management Institute, Professional Manager: Winter 2016, 2016
  111. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Respect as a Dimension of Fair Work', Discussion Paper, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.
  112. HSE, 'Health and Safety Statistics: Annual Report for Great Britain 2014/15', Annual Report (Health and Safety Executive, 2015), www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/overall/hssh1415.pdf.
  113. CIPD, 'Dramatic Rise in Stress-Related Sickness Absence among NHS Staff' (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 24 March 2015), www.cipd.co.uk/pm/peoplemanagement/b/weblog/archive/2015/03/24/dramatic-rise-in-stress-related-sickness-absence-among-nhs-staff.aspx.
  114. HSE, 'Health and Safety Statistics: Annual Report for Great Britain 2014/15'.
  115. ESENER, 'European Survey of Enterprises on New and Emerging Risks (ESENER) - 2014 Data' (European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, 2014), https://osha.europa.eu/en/surveys-and-statistics-osh/esener.
  116. HSE, 'Work Related Stress, Anxiety and Depression Statistics in Great Britain 2014/15' (Health and Safety Executive, 2015), www.hse.gov.uk/statistics/causdis/stress/.
  117. Eurofound, 'European Working Conditions Survey 2010 - Data on Bullying and Harassment at Work' (Eurofound), accessed 2 February 2016, www.eurofound.europa.eu/surveys/data-visualisation/european-working-conditions-survey-2010.
  118. TUC, 'Focus on Health and Safety', Trade union trends survey (London: Trade Union Congress, October 2014), www.tuc.org.uk/sites/default/files/HealthandSafetySurvey2014.pdf.
  119. Felstead et al., 'Work Intensification in Britain: First Findings from the Skills and Employment Survey 2012'.
  120. S. Harrington, 'Workplace Bullying Through the Eyes of Human Resource Practitioners: A Bourdieusian Analysis' (Thesis (PhD), University of Portsmouth, 2010), http://eprints.port.ac.uk/1674/1/Final_Thesis_-_Susan_Harrington_-_5th_December_2010.pdf.
  121. CIPD, 'Managing Conflict at Work: A Guide for Line Managers'(Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2008), www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/guides/managing-conflict-work-line-managers.aspx.
  122. A. Ariza-Montes, A.L. Leal-Rodríguez, and A.G. Leal-Millán, 'A Comparative Study of Workplace Bullying Among Public and Private Employees in Europe', Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 57, no. 6 (2015): 695-700.
  123. CIPD, 'Bullying at Work: Beyond Policies to a Culture of Respect', Guide (London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2005), 13, www.cipd.co.uk/NR/rdonlyres/D9105C52-7FED-42EA-A557-D1785DF6D34F/0/bullyatwork0405.pdf.
  124. Langeland, 'New Studies on the Long-Term Effects of Bullying'.
  125. CIPD, 'Where Has All the Trust Gone?', Research Report (London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, March 2012), www.cipd.co.uk/binaries/where-has-all-the-trust-gone_2012-sop.pdf.
  126. CIPD, 'Employee Outlook: Focus on Trust in Leaders', Employee Outlook (Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, 2013), www.cipd.co.uk/hr-resources/survey-reports/employee-outlook-focus-trust-leaders.aspx.
  127. H. Inanc et al., 'Job Control in Britain: First Findings from the Skills and Employment Survey 2012' (Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies), accessed 22 February 2016, www.llakes.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/3.-Job-Control-in-Britain-mini-report.pdf.
  128. S. Tipping J. Chanfreau, J. Perry, & C. Tait ., 'The Fourth Work-Life Balance Employee Survey', Employment Relations Employee Survey (Department for Business Innovation & Skills, 2012).
  129. A. Silim and A. Stirling, 'Women and Flexible Working: Improving Female Employment Outcomes in Europe' (London: Institute for Public Policy Research (IPPR), 2014), 10.
  130. S. Tipping et al, op cit.
  131. EHRC, 'Women, Men and Part-Time Work' (Equalities and Human Rights Commission, January 2013), www.equalityhumanrights.com/about-us/devolved-authorities/commission-scotland/legal-work-scotland/articles/women-men-and-part-time-work.
  132. S. Tipping et al, op cit.
  133. Ibid.
  134. B. van Wanrooy, op cit.
  135. CIPD, Bullying at Work, op cit.
  136. Linda Rhoades and Robert Eisenberger, 'Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature', Journal of Applied Psychology 87, no. 4 (August 2002): 698-714, doi:10.1037/0021-9010.87.4.698.
  137. J. Leary-Joyce, Becoming an Employer of Choice (CIPD Publishing, n.d.).
  138. Economy, Energy and Tourism Committee, op cit.
  139. Scottish Centre for Employment Research, 'Inclusive Growth and Fair Work', Discussion paper, The Fair, Innovative and Transformative Work Series (Glasgow: Scottish Centre for Employment Research, University of Strathclyde, 2016), www.innovatingworks.org.uk.

 

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